Sydney Eastern Suburbs Attack

November 4, 2014



Just after midnight on the 8th of June 1942, a Type C1 Japanese submarine I-24 surfaced about 10kms South East of Sydney. This vessel was a mothership for a Ko-Hyoteki class midget submarine, it had a compliment of 95 officers and men and was assigned to a Tokkotai or Special Attack Unit.

Having launched it’s midget submarine to attack Sydney Harbour a week earlier and after waiting in vain for its return, It had now switched its mission to hunting ships off Australia’s East coast. The officer in charge Commander Hiroshi Hanabusa gave targeting instructions to the gunnery officer, Yuzaburo Morita who fired the 140mm deck gun across the bow at the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

In 4 minutes, the Japanese gunners fired 10 shells which missed the bridge but all came down in Sydney’s well-heeled Eastern suburbs. Some say the bridge was the target others say it was just an aiming point and the real target was the seaplane base at Rose Bay. My personal opinion is that ANYTHING was the target as the raid was more for nuisance/disruption value than anything else.

I-24 had dived before searchlights on the shore had been turned on and Sydney’s gun batteries could return fire, leaving nothing but the wailing of air raid sirens and lights sweeping the sea and sky. If the 1-24 had spent just another minute or two on the surface to continue firing, there is a very high probability that it would’ve been engaged. One response to the shelling was the scrambling of a US Army Airforce P-400 Aircobra based at Bankstown airport about 20km West of Sydney. The only pilot on duty was 1st Lt George Leo Cantello of the 41st Pursuit Squadron, 35th Fighter Group, who unfortunately was killed shortly after take-off when his aircraft suffered engine failure and crashed in the suburb of Hammondville. To commemorate his sacrifice a park there is now named the ‘Lt. Cantello Reserve.’

I-24s shells were scattered over several suburbs, One landed on the corner of Small and Fletcher Streets in Woolahra which at the time was a grocery store owned by Mr and Mrs S.J and Alice Richards. It hit the gutter and shattered all of the windows but didn’t detonate. After the attack, Alice and her two children hid under the bed. When they eventually came down stairs they found their shop was wrecked. When repairs were carried out, the front door of the shop was bricked up and apart from that, the building itself today looks much as it did during 1942.

Another of I-24’s Salvos hit Grantham Flats, located on the corner of Manion Avenue and Iluka Streets in Rose Bay. Resident in the apartment where the shell penetrated was Mr Ernest Hirsch and his family, German Jews who had fled Nazi Germany five years earlier. Ernest was woken by the shell as it crashed across the floor of his mother’s room and passed through another two internal walls, finally coming to rest on the stairs. Ernest’s mother ended up covered in debris but otherwise escaped unharmed, as did Ernest’s wife and 18 month old son who were in another room. Ernest suffered a fractured foot when he was buried under a pile of broken masonry. Once again the shell failed to explode and Air raid warden Harry Woodward carried the shell to nearby Dangar Park, where it was buried and subsequently defused by a navy demolition team.

Only one shell actually exploded. This happened outside of the Yallambee Flats at 33 Plummer Road Rose Bay and it demolished part of a house, but fortunately noone was killed. The kinetic energy alone of the 38 kilo projectiles still caused considerable damage but there were no fatalities at all during the entire attack. Other places where shells landed were 9 Bunyula and 68 Streatfield Roads Bellevue Hill, 67 Balfour Road, Rose Bay, 1 Simpson Street, Bondi and Olola Avenue, Vaucluse. Some people believe a second shell landed in Bondi, impacting on the promenade in front of the surf club and spraying it with concrete fragments, but no evidence exists to support this.

Despite the fact that noone was killed, the attack caused widespread panic that a Japanese invasion was imminent and it caused many Eastern suburb residents to flee. If you were an astute investor at the time you could’ve made some money because house prices in the area plummeted.

The Japanese shelling of Sydney had a huge psychological impact that far outweighed the material damage and played upon deep seated fears of a Japanese invasion.

Apart from the loss of it’s midget submarine, I -24 left Australian waters unscathed, to continue its war elsewhere. I-24 was commissioned at the Sasebo shipyards in October 1941 and it’s career was distinguished. It had participated in the attack on Pearl Harbour, where it launched midget submarine Number 19 which washed up on the shore of Oahu and was captured. It’s now an exhibit at the National Museum of the Pacific War in Fredericksburg, Texas.

It also participated in the Battle of the Coral Sea and of course most famously in the Australian context had launched one of the three midget submarines that attacked Sydney Harbour on the 31st of May. The story of this incredible attack will be discussed in another episode.

As the war progressed, the threat of submarine attacks diminished. Put simply this was because as the Japanese were pushed back they lost their Pacific bases, and were forced to operate further and further away from Australia. I-24 eventually met its fate in June 1943, when it was rammed and sunk with all hands by an American vessel the USS Larchmont near the Aleutian Islands in the Northern Pacific.

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October 13, 2014

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I’m standing at one of my 3 favourite Matilda’s: Matilda Bay. The others being Natalie Portman’s character in The Professional and Waltzing.001524 crawley P01260.020 Matilda Bay is located on the shores of Perth’s Swan River. Looking ahead across the water you have fantastic views of the city skyline and a smattering of very, very expensive yachts, look behind and you can see the beautiful sandstone buildings and the velvet soft sporting fields of the University of Western Australia.

It’s a very special place for me, not just because this is where I used to come and pass out after attending UWA Toga parties, it’s because during the second world war the US Navy had a fleet of Flying boats based right here at Matilda Bay.

By May 1942 all American troops in the Phillipines surrendered to the invading Japanese Army who continued their advance Southwards to attack Malaya, the Dutch East Indies and Java, driving US and Allied forces before them. This meant the loss of bases for ships and aircraft who were forced to flee. Among them were a number of Consolidated PBY Catalinas from the US Navy’s Patrol Wing Number 10. Who escaped from bases in the Philippines and ended up in Darwin and Broome. It was ‘out of the frying pan into the fire’ as they were caught up in the Japanese attacks there and the survivors were then posted to Perth, a safe-haven being out of range of Japanese land-based aircraft.

They brought with them the Consolidated PBY Catalina. It was one of the most widely used seaplanes of WW2. PB stood for Patrol Boat and ‘Y’ was the code assigned to the manufacturer – Consolidated Aircraft.

Patrol Wing 10 operated from Crawley Bay on the Swan River from March 1942 to mid-1944. Their depleted ranks were soon replenished and the unit grew to approximately 60 – 70 Catalina flying boats and were followed by approximately 1200 American support personal.

It was an incredibly versatile aircraft and it could be equipped with depth charges, bombs, torpedoes, and .50 caliber machine guns. The Catalinas undertook reconnaissance, anti-submarine patrols, convoy escort, search and rescue, and occasionally bombing missions across the expanse of the Indian Ocean

The University of Western Australia supported these operations and the officers’ quarters were built on the site where University Hall is now situated. The photo lab which was responsible for all photo-work from aerial reconnaissance took up a large part of the Engineering Building which is now the Guild Tavern and Riley Oval just next to Hackett Drive was used as a parade ground for troops.

The university was helpful in other ways. UWA landmarks Hackett and Winthrop Halls where I’m standing right now have prominent red terracotta roofs which are highly visible from the air and apparently acted as markers to help guide the Catalina pilots back to base.

British, Dutch and Australian flying boats also operated out of Crawley. Perhaps most famously RAAF pilots seconded to Qantas re-established the Australia-England Airlink that had been cut due to the fall of Singapore in 1942. This involved flights between Crawley and RAF Base Koggala in southern Ceylon which is now Sri Lanka. The flights were the longest non-stop air route of any airline, stretching approximately 6000 km across the Indian Ocean. It took between 27 and 33 hours, with departures timed so that the plane crossed enemy territory during darkness to avoid air attack. Radio silence had to be maintained to avoid detection and the weight of fuel required limited the Catalina’s load to only three passengers and 69kg of mail. It was called the Double Sunrise because the crews would see the sunrise twice.

Matilda Bay is a beautiful place to visit by itself, but If you want to see a Consolidated PBY Catalina up close and personal there are two options, you can visit the Aviation Heritage Museum located in Bullcreek, Perth where there is one on display and is definitely worth a visit. Or for the more fantasy minded you can play the X-Box 360 game ‘World at War’ and fly Catalina missions in the Pacific. I recommend doing both.

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August 26, 2014


TRANSCRIPT:  You’re listening to a podcast from Backyard Battlefields with me James De Leo, thanks for downloading this edition of the program, for more information visit

(AUDIO: GUNS FIRING) These are the sounds that would’ve been heard if enemy warships had attacked the port of Fremantle. They are 6 inch naval guns of the type which used to sit at the Leighton Battery, part of the Fremantle coastal defence fortress of WW2 which we’re going to be exploring today. For anyone new to military terms the word ‘Battery’ in this context refers to an organized position of artillery….not energizers. The Leighton Battery is located West of Buckland Hill, just off Stirling Highway in the swanky Western Australian suburb of Mosman Park. Buckland Hill was named after William Buckland, a prominent British theologian and it’s thought that Willem de Vlamingh, the Dutch navigator landed close by this feature in 1697.

Following the Federation of the Australian colonies in 1901, it was decided the defences at the port of Fremantle needed to be upgraded and gun batteries were built at Fort Forrest – Leighton Observation PostNorth Fremantle and on the south side of the harbour at Arthur Head, work was completed on these batteries in 1908 and Buckland Hill was used as an observation post. During the Great War, (Incidentally I never liked that term, ‘Gee what a great war!’) aka WW1, this observation Post also served as the Port Signal Station, a naval facility used to signal vessels in Gage Roads which is the name of the sea channel for traffic, leaving and entering the port of Fremantle. For sailing aficionados, Gage Roads was also the site of the 1987 Americas Cup.

After WW1 industrial development in Fremantle blocked some of the fields of fire of the existing guns and consideration was given to moving Fort Forrest to Buckland Hill. But as the terminal for the overseas telegraphic cables ended very close to Leighton Beach there was concern that concussion from the guns would interfere with the instruments of the cable station. So the Fort Forrest guns were instead emplaced at Swanbourne, within the current location of Campbell Barracks a topic which will be discussed in a later podcast.

In December 1941, 2 weeks after the Japanese attack on Pearl anti-aircraft site was commissioned at Buckland Hill. This was Fremantle’s second air defence site the first being located on Skinner St where the John Curtin College of the Arts Sports Oval is now situated. The 3.7-Inch Q.F guns used a 12 kg shell and were Britain’s primary heavy anti-aircraft gun during the second world war. It was roughly the equivalent of the famous German 88. It had a slightly larger calibre of 94 mm and a rate of fire between 10 and 20 rounds per minute.

Towards the end of 1942 the Fort Arthur Head guns were moved to Leighton where they could fulfill their task of ‘examination battery’ more effectively. The purpose of an ‘examination battery’ was to fire a warning shot at any vessels approaching the port that refused to stop to be identified. If this was ignored, they would then be engaged as a hostile vessel. So these guns were 6inch or 152mm MKVII naval guns which could fire a 45KG shell up to 14 kilometres. They were temporarily mounted as it was planned to eventually replace them with modem weapons from the UK. The concerns about the telegraphic cable station were now moot because it was closed for the duration of the war. Thanks partly to the generosity of local business one of the barrels has been restored and it is still mounted at the battery site. It’s interesting to note that the writing on it indicate it’s a Mark 6, model, NOT a Mark 7. Controversy! With the guns came the construction of over 300 metres of tunnels for ammunition magazines, communications, and amenities for the approximately one hundred and thirty personnel employed within the complex. The battery was commissioned in February 1943 and barracks, searchlights and support facilities were also added.

By 1944 work commenced to replace the older 6inch guns with three 5.25-inch Coast Artillery/ Anti-Aircraft guns and by 1950, the Battery was sufficiently advanced for 1 Fixed Defence Brigade and a group from the School of Artillery to conduct a six-month training exercises. This made Leighton the only battery of this type out of the eight planned for Australian port defences to become operational and in 1951, – 25 Medium Coast /AA Battery, Citizen Military Forces was formed to man the facility. It continued to operate in this capacity with several changes in title until 1963 at which time the unit was disbanded, the guns disposed of as scrap and the emplacements filled with rubble.

The battery had once formed part of the University of Western Australia’s land endowment before it was acquired by the Commonwealth in the 1940’s. It was returned to the State Government in 1979 and the land sold for housing with one third of the area kept as public open space. The area was subsequently made an “A Class Reserve” and the THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN ARTILLERY HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA was authorised to develop the facility as a militaria museum. The site has been entered in the Register of the National Estate as a significant World War Two Coastal Defence Facility.

If you’d like to visit the Leighton Battery Heritage site, tours of the tunnels are run every Sunday from 10am – 3pm but you can visit the general area anytime. Of particular interest is the 3.7 inch Anti-aircraft gun on display and the gun pit for the battery’s main armament which gives you a good idea of how large the actual guns were. The views from the top are spectacular and you can see why it made such an excellent location for the defence of WA’s ports.

( ED: Thanks must go to: and the Australian War Memorial (AWM) for some great images and information. To download the podcast just visit or search Backyard Battlefields)

GENERAL (As in 'generic' not 'rank')

Thank you!

August 26, 2014

Hello from BBHQ. Just a quick thanks to all those that have downloaded the first episode of Backyard Battlefields from itunes! A special thank you must also go to Cal Nichols from Suasive/Mediapower in Cairns and Greg Bruyer from Perth’s number 1 web development company Clever Starfish for donating their valuable time to the BB cause.

A new episode will be up shortly.




August 14, 2014


TRANSCRIPT: KINGS PARK is one of Perth’s most beautiful locations, and it’s most physically prominent feature is Mount Eliza which overlooks the Perth City and the Swan River. In 1862 convicts built a rifle range along the crest for use by the Perth and Fremantle Volunteer Rifles. What we are looking at today is a War Memorial that you can find in the grassed area between Fraser Avenue and Bellvue Terrace.

There was a time when I used to hear the words Orange Free State, I would think of scurvy, but now I think of the conflict fought between the Boer Republics and Great Britain. Specifically I think of the Boer War Memorial which was the first of it’s kind erected in Kings Park. It honours the Western Australian soldiers killed in the second Boer War that was fought between 1899-1902.

As part of the British Empire, the six Australian colonies offered troops for the war in South Africa. The Australians had a reputation as being tough soldiers and 6 Victoria Crosses were awarded. They were generally excellent horsemen and mainly served as Mounted Infantry. A film which might spark your interest in Australia’s involvement in the Boer War is Breaker Morrant. It has an amazing cast, Edward Woodward, Bryan Brown, Jack Thompson, John Waters and of course Ray Meagher who is most famous for playing Alf ‘Ya flaming mongrel’ Stuart on Home and Away.

The memorial itself is a very detailed statue of two soldiers, one is standing, holding a Lee Metford .303 rifle, and wearing a slouch hat, the first time Australian forces wore it overseas. The other soldier is lying wounded at his feet drinking out of a canteen. They are mounted on a large stone, ‘plinth’ featuring a plaque listing the names of the men of the Western Australian contingent who lost their lives.

On the four sides of the plinth there are bronze raised -relief images of significant moments in the war. They depict; artillery in action at Ladysmith, a night attack on an enemy convoy, troops dispersing train wrecking Boers and Australian’s entering Praetoria. On the rear there is a scene of Major Hatherly Moor, and members of the Western Australian Mounted Infantry in their first action at Slingersfontein Farm on the 9th of February 1900. Major Moor led a patrol consisting of a number of Iniskilling Dragoons (British Cavalry) and approximately 20 West Australians distinguished themselves by holding off a numerically superior Boer force of 400 men. The site in South Africa where this took place is known today as Western Australian Hill. Sadly Major Moor was killed some 5 months later at an action at Palmetfontein in the Orange Free State.

The original memorial statue was sculpted by James White but had to be replaced in 1915 with a new statue of solid copper made locally by Messrs ‘Wunderlich and Co’ at a cost of £450.The foundation stone was laid in 1901 by the Duke of Cornwall who was later to become King George V and the memorial was unveiled in September 1902.

The centerpiece is a trophy from the war – a German made Krupp 75mm field gun* or to give it its full name a KRUPP 7.5cm Feldkanone L/27. It was said to have been captured at the Battle of Bothaville and presented to the state by the British government in 1906 and subsequently added to the memorial. It fired a 12 pound projectile and had a rate of fire of 8 rounds per minute. A number of these Feldkanone were sold by the firm Freidrich Krupp AG to the Boer Republics. The artillery corps of the Orange Free State (Oranje Vrijstaat Artillerie Corps) imported 6 examples of this model in 1892 and a further 8 in 1897. The coat of arms of the Orange Free State is engraved near the breach. Also stamped on the gun is the word ‘Essen’ and 1897 indicating the place and year of it’s manufacture.  It is a beautiful gun and I would love to see it fully restored and brought back to it’s former glory.

The Boer War is a fascinating but relatively little known part of Australian military history, so The next time you’re going for a jog at Kings Park or going to punish yourself by running up and down Jacobs Ladder, take the time to visit and learn a little bit more about the Boer War Memorial.

*Great thanks goes to MC Heunis for contacting us on Facebook sending us further information on the correct model of Kings Park Krupp cannon.